Components of PV system - Electrical Engineering Gate

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Wednesday, January 2, 2019

Components of PV system

Cells, modules, arrays

Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel circuits to produce higher voltages, currents and power levels. Photovoltaic modulesconsist of PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate,and are the fundamental building blocks of PV systems. Photovoltaic panels include one or more PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installableUnit. A photovoltaic array is the complete power-generating unit, consisting ofany number of PV modules and panels
 Photovoltaic cells, modules, panels and arrays

The performance of PV modules and arrays are generally rated according to theirmaximum DC power output (watts) under Standard Test Conditions (STC)
Standard test Conditions are defined by a module (cell) operating temperature of 25° C (77F), and incident solar irradiance level of 1000 W/ and under Air Mass 1.5 spectraldistribution. Since these conditions are not always typical of how PV modules andarrays operate in the field, actual performance is usually 85% to 90% of the STCrating

Today’s photovoltaic modules are extremely safe and reliable products, with minimalFailure rates and projected service lifetimes of 20 to 30 years. Most majormanufacturers offer warranties of 20 or more years for maintaining a high percentageof initial rated power output. When selecting PV modules, look for the product listing(UL), qualification testing and warranty information in the module manufacturer’s specifications

Related equipment’s
  •     Solar charge controller

Regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels going to battery, prevents battery overcharging, and prolongs the battery life
  •    Inverter 

Converts DC output of PV panels, wind turbine into a clean AC current for AC appliances, or fedback into grid line
  •    Battery

Stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand

  •        Load

Load is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerator, etc

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